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Carmena Raffaele Interview (Part of the Italian American Oral History Project)

 Digital Record


  • 1982-10-08



Raffaele gives a history of her father and 3 uncles who came to the United States. Two stayed and two went to Canada. They farmed and worked in limestone quarries. Her father also worked on the Sault Locks as a blaster. She talks about Italian social life, such as food, holidays, and making wine. Midwifery and home remedies were fairly common. She also discusses Mussolini and fascism and how it affected the Italians in the area and her family. Recorded at Sault Sainte Marie, Michigan.

Conditions Governing Use

Permission to publish Carmena Raffaele Interview (Part of the Italian American Oral History Project), must be obtained from the University Archivist. The University Archivist may be reached by phone at 906-227-1225, or e-mail, The University Archivist may also be reached in Room 126 of the Learning Resource Center, Northern Michigan University, Marquette, MI.


1 item (1 sound file (84 min.))

Language of Materials


Existence and Location of Originals

MSS-202, Italian American Oral History Project


Repository Details

Part of the Central Upper Peninsula and Northern Michigan University Archives Repository

Harden Learning Resources Center 126
1401 Presque Isle Ave
Marquette 49855 United States
906-227-1333 (Fax)


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